Hey my dear today we learn about of full details of fundamental position. Do you know what fundamental position is? If you don’t know about this, read below. First we know about anatomical position.
Anatomical position definition
Standard anatomical position is rigidly defined for human anatomy. In standard anatomical position the human body is standing erect and at rest. The body has its feet together and its arms are rotated outwards so that the palms are forward and the thumbs are pointed away from the body. The arms are usually moves slightly out from the body. So that the hands do not touch the sides. In case of male penis lies between legs.
Position of skull
Here nice topic is Frankfurt plane definition. Lower margin of the orbits and upper margin of car cannal, the paria all lie in same horizontal plane. This can be achieved in position in which the skull would be it the subject were standing upright and facing for ward normally. This is called ‘‘Frankfurt plane’’.
Now we know about fundamental position. Read below-
Fundamental position or starting position
Sherrington stated that posture follows movement like a shadow. Every movement begins in posture and ends in posture.
Types of fundamental position
The posture from which movement is initiated is known as starting position and they may be active or passive in character. They are generally five fundamental position and they are-
Standing position definition
The position refers to body is erect with arms by the sides. The feet are slightly apart at the toes.
Types of standing position
The position may be described as bellow-
- The heels are together and on the same line, the toes are slightly apart.
- The knees are together and straight.
- The hips are extended and laterally rotated.
- The pelvis is balanced and the spine is stretched.
- The shoulders are down and back.
- The arms hang loosely to the sides, palms facing inwards towards the body.
Muscle work in standing fundamental position
- Intrinsic muscles of the feet working to stabilize the feet and to prevent carling of the toes.
- Planter flexors of the ankle, working to balance to lower leg on the foot.
- Dorsiflexors of the ankle working to counter balance the action of planter flexor.
- The evertors working to counter balance on invertors.
- Extensors of the hip working to maintain hip extension and to balance pelvis on the femoral heads.
- The extensors at spine working to keep the trunk upright.
- The flexors of lumbar spine working to prevent over action of extensors of this region.
- Flexors and extensors at atlanto-occipital joint working reciprocally to balance the head.
- The neck muscles working to control excessive extension.
- The retractors of the scapulae working to draw the scapulae and the arms.
Effect and uses of standing position
- The base of support is small and center of gravity is high.
- Body is maintained by coordinated work of many muscles.
- Body is relatively less stable than other fundamental position.
- Muscles work is minimal when perfect balance is maintained
- Thorax is free and abdominal viscera are well supported.
Body is supported on the knees which may be slightly apart or together and the rest of the body is held in standing. The arms are by sides of the body and legs provide the base.
Muscle work of kneeling position
The extensors of the hip and the flexors of the lumbar spine work more strongly to maintain the correct angle of the pelvic tilt.
- There is interplay between the flexors and extensors of the knee, to balance the femur vertically on the knee.
Effect and uses of kneeling position
The center of gravity is high but lower when compared to standing and line of gravity is close to the edge of the base, however, uncomfortable for most of the people.
This is used in starting position for backward movement, and to train control of hip joint and lower trunk in preparation for standing.
Sitting Position definition
The position is taken on a chair or on a tool. The height and width of which allow thighs to be fully supported and the hips and knees to be flexed to a right angle.
Muscles used in sitting position
The flexor of the hip work to maintain a right angle at these joints and to prevent the tendency to slump.
Effects and uses of sitting position
- Most comfortable natural and stable position.
- Particularly used for who lacks the necessary strength and control to maintain the difficulty position.
- Used for non-weight bearing exercise for lower limb and useful in training in the upper part of the body.
Body is supine and with the arms by sides and legs are straight. Body is completely supported. Low center of gravity and highest stable position.
Muscles used in lying position
- The head rotator of both side worked reciprocally to stabilize the position of head.
- The Medial rotator of hip work to keep the leg in natural position.
Effect and uses of lying position
- Easy position trunk fixed on weight.
- Suitable position for many exercises.
- Spine is relieved from burden of transmitting weight of head and shoulders.
- The position is unsuitable for those suffer from respiratory and cardiac illness.
- Unsuitable for elderly because it hinders returns of blood from heat.
The body is suspended by grapping over a horizontal bar, the forearms being pronated, the arms straight and at least shoulder width apart.
Muscle work of hanging position
- The flexors of the fingers work strongly to grasp the bar.
- All muscles round the wrist work strongly, the adductors of the shoulder work strongly to lift the body on the arms.
- The depressors, retractors and medial rotator at the scapulae work strongly to fix scapulae.
- The pre-vertebral and posterior neck muscles work reciprocally of maintain of the position.
- The flexor of the lumbar spine and the extensors of the hips work to correct the tendency to arch the back.
- The adductors of the hips work to keep the legs together.
- The plantar flexors work to point the toes to the floor.
Effects and uses of hanging position
- Only suitable for whom muscular strength and body weight is well balanced. The weight of shoulder is taken by spine.
- Weight of legs exerts traction upon body.
- During hanging, if the chest is fixed in inspiration, it may cause difficulty in breathing.
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